What drink could be more integral to the American athletic scene than Gatorade?

Magnetic Recording Tape Technologies 

Marvin Camras (1916-1995) invented the magnetic tape recording method that underlies most electronic and digital media, including audio, video cassettes, floppy disks, and credit card magnetic strips.

The Photocopier

Necessity is often called "the mother of invention." But sometimes, there are other reasons that people become innovative.

Polymeric Materials: Nylon and Neoprene

E.I. DuPont de Nemours & Company once called Wallace Hume Carothers "one of the most brilliant organic chemists" the company had ever employed.

The air conditioner

One year after earning a master's degree in Electrical Engineering from Cornell University in 1901, Willis Haviland Carrier (1876-1950) developed and patented the world's first modern air conditioner.

Far-ultraviolet camera / spectrograph

Since the 1960s, George R. Carruthers has been a pioneer in the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy to learn more about the earth and the universe.


Baseball, like the United States, evolved out of a British precedent into a unique and independent institution.

Power Loom

British reverend, poet, and lifelong inventor Edmund Cartwright was born on April 24, 1743 in Marnham, Nottingham, England and would later invent a device that set in motion dramatic changes affecting today’s worldwide textile industry.

Peanut Products

In the 1880s, agriculture began to be taken seriously as a science. George Washington Carver (1865-1943), born the slave of Missouri landowner Moses Carver, overcame the prejudices that did not die with the Emancipation Proclamation and became the foremost agricultural chemist of this new era.

Satellite Servicing Techniques

The advent of space flight and the widespread practice of putting satellites into orbit for communications purposes has posed a variety of challenges for scientists, engineers, and researchers this past half-century.

Biology-based solution for cleaning up toxic spills

Ananda Chakrabarty, PhD is a distinguished professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of Illinois College of Medicine (UIC).

Gene Sequencing

When Eugene Chan was a 23-year-old medical school student, he came up with an idea for mapping a genome quickly and inexpensively — by mimicking the way DNA naturally acts when it duplicates itself.

Rubber Bandits®

A seemingly simple idea can sometimes become an incredibly successful, mass-market product that makes life a little bit easier for millions of people. Such is the case with Rubber Bandits®, oversized rubber bands equipped with tear-resistant, waterproof labels, created by self-described “idea czar” Adrian Chernoff in 2004.

Thin-film transistor technology

Anne Chiang is responsible for numerous accomplishments in electronic display devices and other computing technologies.

Electrochemical Actuators

Materials scientist Yet-Ming Chiang has developed breakthrough materials to enable new technologies such as stable, high-power, rechargeable batteries and novel electrochemical actuators.


In the first half of the 20th century, Danish carpenter Ole Kirk Christiansen created one of the most beloved toys of all time, enjoyed all over the world by millions of children and quite a few adults as well.

CD34 disease cell marker

Curt Civin, King Fahd Professor of Oncology and Pediatrics at Johns Hopkins University, has achieved wide recognition for an important discovery he made in 1984 – a stem-cell selection process that has made more effective and less toxic cancer therapies possible.

Cochlear Implant/Bionic Ear

Australian physician, scientist, and inventor Graeme Milbourne Clark changed the lives of tens of thousands of hearing-impaired individuals with his creation of the multi-channel cochlear implant.

Dishwashing Machine

Josephine Cochrane, inventor of the first commercially successful dishwashing machine, was born in Ashtabula County, Ohio in 1839.

Reduced Instruction Set Computing (RISC)

In the early 1970s, John Cocke transformed computing by simplifying the set of instructions that tell computers which functions to perform.


In 1955, British inventor and engineer Christopher Sydney Cockerell invented a swift water-transport vehicle that was not quite a boat, not quite a plane, but a hybrid of sorts: the hovercraft.

Colt Revolver

Regardless of one’s views on the use of firearms by private citizens, it is important to know about these powerful devices. Perhaps no other American brand name of firearm is better known than Colt, which began in 1836 with the creation of the Colt revolver.


Lloyd H. Conover is credited with having invented the first antibiotic made by chemically modifying a naturally-produced drug. His creation, Tetracycline, has been one of the most frequently prescribed antibiotics in the United States for treating bacterial infections for several decades.


Peter Cooper is credited with the invention of one of the most uniquely American desserts of all time: “Jell-O.” Cooper was an engineer and philanthropist, active in politics and community affairs and known for a variety of inventions and accomplishments. He was born in New York City on February 12, 1791 and grew up in Peekskill, New York.

Super Glue™

The incredibly stable adhesive known as Super Glue ™ was invented by accident in 1942 by Dr. Harry Coover. Today the substance is somewhat of a household necessity, with uses ranging from simple woodworking and appliance repair to industrial binding and medical applications.

Pyrotechnic signaling system

Widowed at the age of 21, Martha Coston (1826-1904) of Philadelphia met the challenge of providing for her four children by inventing a system of maritime signal flares that would later help the North win the Civil War.


For centuries, human beings have been fascinated with the concept of being able to “breathe” underwater while exploring the deep blue sea. As early as the third century B.C., Aristotle is said to have made references to some type of breathing apparatus that would allow a person to stay underwater for an extended period of time.

The Supercomputer

What is a supercomputer? The term has traditionally meant any computer that can process 20 million math calculations per second. Today, a supercomputer is defined as the fastest computer available and can be thousands of times faster than the typical home computer.

Heat Transfer 

David Crosthwait (1898-1976), inventor and authority on heat transfer, ventilation, and air conditioning, was born in Nashville in 1898 and grew up in Kansas City, Missouri.  At that time, it was relatively rare for an African American man to achieve an esteemed reputation in the sciences, yet that is exactly what he did.

Potato Chip

The fine details surrounding the invention of one of the United States' favorite snack foods are somewhat hazy, but all signs point to a man named George Crum, a cook and restaurateur who is said to have come up with the idea for the tasty crisp.

Radioactivity Theory

Poland-born Maria Sklodowska Curie is remembered as one of the world’s most brilliant scientists. Her achievements are seen as all the more remarkable because she was a woman working in a male-dominated field.

Commercial Cesium Clock

Leonard Cutler was a pioneer in the field of ultraprecise timekeeping standards and devices for over forty years. 

Cutler was a veteran of the greater Silicon Valley scientific community.  He earned his BS (1958), MS (1960), and PhD (1966) in Physics from Stanford University, all while working at neighboring Hewlett-Packard Laboratories.  The mainstay of Cutler's work at HP had been developing atomic frequency standards and designing atomic chronometers.